A group of Bangladeshi scientists have discovered new antibiotics from jute. A group of researchers led by Professor Hasina Khan, Professor Riazul Islam and Professor Aftab Uddin of the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology of Dhaka University have tirelessly discovered a new antibiotic named Homicorcin. This antibiotic was discovered from a bacterium found in the body of the jute plant. The work became possible after unraveling the mystery of Jute’s life. In 2013, a team of researchers led by Bangladeshi scientist Dr. Maqsudul Alam uncovered the secret of Tosha Pat’s life (genome sequence). Dhaka University’s Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI) and private information technology organization Data Soft jointly carried out the research. Research to find out the life secret or gene design (genome sequencing) of jute is completed in Bangladesh. Research data analysis and technical assistance was received from the University of Hawaii and the University of Science Malaysia. Scientists associated with this research said that it will be possible to ensure multi-purpose use of jute and diversify production.
The professor of biochemistry and microbiology department of Dhaka University has tried to understand the DNA of jute. Hasina Khan and related scientists. While working on the mystery of life of jute, scientists found different types of microorganisms in its different parts. They were a little surprised when scientists analyzed the DNA samples obtained using jute seeds in the laboratory. They found that in addition to plant DNA, there is also much DNA from microorganisms. At first, they thought the lab students might have been infected with another microorganism. Microorganisms are those tiny single-celled organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye. All types of bacteria, archaea, protozoa, single-celled algae and fungi belong to microorganisms. Some microorganisms live closely with every plant. Different types of fungi, bacteria, etc. live in different parts of plants such as leaves, stems, roots. One type of microorganism resides in the roots and another type in the stem.
While working with jute seeds, scientists found several microorganisms, which scientists thought were making something that would be useful to them in the future. This microorganism or bacteria has a special type of characteristic. In particular, it produces anti-microbial compounds, which are much needed in human medicine. By studying them better, Professor Riazul Islam found that more than 50 microorganisms or bacteria live in the grooves of jute fibers. Among those bacteria, a bacteria called Staphylococcus hominis (Stephailococcus hominis) is found. This bacteria produces something from its body that kills other bacteria in the vicinity.
They isolate or separate the micro-organisms they find. While isolating and characterizing it, they found that this bacterium was very interesting. The bacteria they later learned was called Staphylococcus hominis. This bacterium shows very good anti-microbial activity, qualities that are required for antibiotic production. This bacterium raised their curiosity. They tried to see what the compound was. He thought that the genome of this bacterium has all the information to make this antibiotic. Scientists sequenced the whole genome of this bacterium and after analysis they found its entire gene cluster. When they saw the preliminary gene structure of this antibiotic within the gene cluster, they saw that it was a noble anti-microbial peptide. Many types of bacteria produce this type of anti-microbial peptide. It is a new type of antibiotic or lantibiotic. So what is in this bacteria? Professor Aftab Uddin of the Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology started to find the answer to this question. The search for this new antibiotic comes out which can save the lives of many patients who have become antibiotic resistant. Isolating and culturing the bacteria was the work of Professor Hasina and her group.
Then when it is established, how long the bacteria is fermented or cultured at any stage, the antibiotic is found in the media. After that the purification part was done by Prof. Aftab Uddin. It was very hard work. She was accompanied by an NRI student named Shammi Akhter. First they started working with a bacterium. Later they got 5 variants. They have to devote themselves wholeheartedly to obtain various studies such as physical characteristics and chemical characteristics. This research has been going on for three years. Bangladesh Council of Science and Industrial Research (BCSIR) member AHM Shafiul Islam Mollah worked with them. Apart from this, the researchers were Shammi Akhtar, Mahbooba Ferdous, Badrul Haider and Al Amin from the Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology of the Faculty of Biology of Dhaka University. They worked hard for a long time to get a new anti-microbial compound. This new antibiotic is named Homicorcin after the name of bacteria and jute.
For the scientists, the experience and success of this kind of work was very gratifying. This kind of work is not very easy in Bangladesh. They cooperated together and many were able to do the work together. It was a small step for a man but a giant step for the entire human race or the living world. This antibiotic is being worked on in Japan and England. They are working on it spontaneously. Many of the microorganisms that cause disease in our bodies are becoming resistant to antibiotics. It is a big disaster for people. That is why they undertake the work. Over time, many collaborators discovered a new anti-microbial compound from jute. Their research report was recently published in the world famous journal Scientific Reports.
Various studies at home and abroad have proven that new strains of bacteria are developing resistance to conventional antibiotics. There are also many bacteria around us that have successfully developed resistance to all common antibiotics, which has become a concern for the entire world. Most of the antibiotics used in medicine have adapted to the bacteria that cause disease in the human body, that is, most of the bacteria that cause disease in our body are becoming resistant to conventional antibiotics. Even in hospitals, patients are being infected by bacteria known as superbugs that cannot be cured by conventional antibiotics. Therefore, many countries of the world are continuing to research intensively in search of new antibiotics. The whole world is searching for new antibiotics. It is being worked on in laboratories of different countries. Drug companies are desperate. There are also these new antibiotics being successful.
The name of this resistant bacteria is Staphylococcus aureus, which is a hospital-acquired infection. This infection is more common among those admitted to the hospital. This strain comes from a hospital. Very few antibiotics can work against it. Scientists are commenting that this new antibiotic invented by Bangladeshi scientists can work very well against this harmful bacteria. Vancomycin is an antibiotic known as a last resort. Doctors give Vancomycin to the patient in the last stage. There is a need to find antibiotics that are effective against this type of drug resistance. This new antibiotic has been successful there as well. They found a total of 5 types of this antibiotic, which will open a new horizon in the history of antibiotics. Where the name of Bangladesh will be written.
Doctors are excited about the discovery of new antibiotics. How quickly homicorcin antibiotics reach the public depends on adequate funding and activities from governments and pharmaceutical companies. It usually takes at least five years to bring any antibiotic to market. Therefore, joint efforts of all public and private sectors are absolutely necessary to ensure the speedy availability of this life-saving medicine as there may be thousands of antibiotic-resistant people around the world eagerly waiting for this antibiotic.